|Analyze:||To examine a passage or argument, in the context of the GMAT and break it down into its constituent parts; to inspect in detail.|
|Assertion:||A statement, usually backed up by some kind of solid proof or reasoning. Synonyms include ‘claim’ and ‘contention.’|
|Assumption:||The underlying reasoning of an argument. ‘Premise’ is a synonym. You’ll be asked about the assumptions of various arguments frequently in Critical Reasoning questions in the GMAT Verbal section.|
|Cite:||To refer back to your source or reasoning.|
|Claim:||An assertion, argument, or statement.|
|Contention:||Can mean a conflict or clash. In the context of the GMAT, usually refers to an argument or assertion, especially a controversial one. The verb form is ‘to contend.’|
|Corroborate:||To support or validate an existing opinion, belief, or argument. Other synonyms include ‘verify’ and ‘confirm.’ Often used in the phrase ‘corroborating evidence.’|
|Faulty:||Some Critical Reasoning questions may ask you if or how an argument is faulty. Faulty is a synonym for ‘flawed’ or ‘invalid.’|
|Imply:||To imply is to suggest based on evidence (but not state explicitly).|
|Infer/Inference:||To infer is to conclude based on given evidence/information.|
|Maintain:||In the context of the GMAT, ‘maintain’ means to argue, assert, or contend, particularly repeatedly or after opposition.|
|Mitigate:||To lessen, diminish, or render less extreme or severe. Often used in the phrase ‘mitigating circumstances,’ which refers to circumstances that make a crime more understandable but don’t entirely exonerate someone of his/her crime.|
|Paradox:||This is common in GMAT Critical Reasoning questions in the Verbal section. A paradox is something that is seemingly contradictory or doesn’t make sense or two facts that don’t seem to coexist logically.|
|Posit:||To posit is to present an argument or hypothesis about something that is currently unknown or uncertain.|
|Premise:||A premise is a statement upon which an argument or theory is based.|
|Redundancy:||‘Redundancy’ refers to something (a word, phrase, or piece of information) that’s repetitive and thus meaningless or unnecessary.|
|Sufficient:||‘Sufficient,’ in the context of the GMAT, means ‘enough on its own.’|
|Undermine:||To weaken or invalidate (usually an argument, in the context of the GMAT).|
|Validate:||Often used interchangeably with ‘corroborate.|
|Warranted:||‘Warranted’ means justified, deserved, or necessary.|
Bonus List of gmat vocabulary list
1.Abate – Reduce or diminish.
Her stress over spending so much money on a house abated when the real estate broker told her about the property’s 15-year tax abatement.
2.Aberration, Anomaly – Something that stands out or is abnormal. Outlier is similar.
The election of a liberal candidate in the conservative county was an aberration (or anomaly), made possible only by the sudden death o f the conservative candidate two days before the election.
3.Acclaim – Great praise or approval.
4.Accord, Discord — Accord is agreement, and discord is disagreement.
Our management is in accord with regulatory agencies about tightening standards.
5.Acquisitiveness – Desire to acquire more, especially an excessive desire.
The firm did well in buying up its competitors as a means of growth, but its acquisitiveness ultimately resulted in problems related to growing too quickly.
6.Acreage – Land measured in acres.
Our property is large, but much o f the acreage is swampland not suitable for building.
7.Adhere to and Adherent – To adhere to is to stick to (literally, such as with glue, or metaphorically, such as to a plan or belief). An adherent is a person who sticks to a belief or cause.
The adherents of the plan wont admit that, in the long term, such a policy would bankrupt our state.
Employees who do not adhere to the policy will be subject to disciplinary action.
8.Ad-lib – 1) Make something up on the spot, give an unprepared speech; 2) Freely, as needed, according to desire.
We have ended our policy of rationing office supplies—pens may now be given to employees ad-lib.
9.Adopt – Take and make one’s own; vote to accept. You can adopt a child, of course, or a new policy.
To adopt a plan implies that you didn’t come up with it yourself.
10.Advent – Arrival.
Before the advent of the Internet, people often called reference librarians to look up information for them in the library’s reference section.
11.Adverse – Unfavorable, opposed.
A noisy environment is adverse to studying, and lack of sleep can have further adverse effects.
12.Agency – The ability to use power or influence.
Some global warming deniers acknowledge that the planet is heating up, but argue that human agency does not affect the climate.
13.Aggravate – Make worse.
Allowing your band to practice in our garage has greatly aggravated my headache.
14.Altogether – Completely, overall. Altogether is an adverb, and is one word. It is not the same as all
together, as in Let’s sing all together.
It was an altogether stunning new design.
15.Ambivalent – 1) Uncertain, unable to decide; 2) Wanting to do two contradictory things at once.
The health care plan has been met with ambivalence from lawmakers who would like to pass the bill but find supporting it to be politically impossible.
16.Amortize – Gradually pay off a debt, or gradually write off an asset.
A mortgage is a common form of amortized debt—spreading the payments out over as long as 30 years is not uncommon.
17.Analogous – Corresponding in a particular way, making a good analogy.
Our situation is analogous to one in a case study I read in business school. Maybe what worked for that company will work for us.
18.Annex – To add on, or something that has been added on. An annex to a building is a part built later
and added on, or a new building that allows an organization to expand.
19Annihilate – Completely destroy.
20.Annul – Make void or null, cancel, abolish (usually of laws or other established rules). Most people associate this word with marriage—a marriage is annulled when a judge rules that it was invalid in the first place (because of fraud, mental incompetence, etc.), so it is as if it never happened.
Can we appreciate the art of a murderer? For many, the value of these paintings is annulled by the artist s crimes.
21.Anoint – The literal meaning is “rub or sprinkle oil on, especially as part o f a ceremony that makes something sacred.” The word is used metaphorically to refer to power or praise being given to someone who is thought very highly of. For instance:
After Principal Smitters raised test scores over 60% at her school, it was only a matter of time before she was anointed superintendant by a fawning school board.
22.Antithetical to – Totally opposed to; opposite.
The crimes o f our chairman are totally antithetical to what the Society for Ethical Leadership stands for.
23.Application – Act or result o f applying. O f course, you can have an application to business school,
but you can also say The attempted application ofAmerican-style democracy in Iraq may ultimately prove
24.Apprentice — A person who works for someone else in order to learn a trade (such as shoemaking, weaving, etc.) from that person. Mostly historical, but still exists in the U.S., in a few industries, such as contracting and electrical wiring.
25.Arbiter – Judge, umpire, person empowered to decide matters at hand. Arbitration is typically a formal process in which a professional arbitrator decides a matter outside of a court o f law.
Professional mediators arbitrate disputes.
The principal said, “As the final arbiter of what is and is not appropriate in the classroom, I demand that you take down that poster of the rapper Ice-T and his scantily clad wife Coco.”
26.Archaic – Characteristic o f an earlier period, ancient, primitive.
The schools archaic computer system predated even floppy disks—it stored records on tape drives!
Sometimes, when you look a word up the dictionary, certain definitions are marked “archaic”— unless you are a Shakespeare scholar, you can safely ignore those archaisms.
27.Aristocracy — A hereditary ruling class, nobility (or a form of government ruled by these people).
28.Artifact – Any object made by humans, especially those from an earlier time, such as those excavated by archaeologists.
The archaeologists dug up countless artifacts, from simple pottery shards and coins to complex written tablets.
The girls room was full of the artifacts of modern teenage life: Justin Bieber posters, Twilight books, and a laptop open to Facebook.
29.Ascribe to/ascription – To ascribe is to give credit; ascription is the noun form.
He ascribed his good grades to diligent studying.
The boys mother was amused by the ascription to his imaginary friend of all the powers he wished he had himself—being able to fly, having dozens of friends, and never having to eat his broccoli.
30.Assert – Affirm, claim, state, or express (that something is true).
31.Assimilation – The process by which a minority group adopts the customs and way o f life of a larger group, or the process by which any new thing being introduced begins to “blend in.” Words like Westernization or Americanization refer to the process of assimilation into Western culture, American culture, etc.
32.Attain – Achieve.
33.Attribute to – Give credit to.
34.Atypical – Not typical.
35.Backfire – To produce an unexpected and unwanted result. The literal meaning refers to an engine, gun, etc., exploding backwards or discharging gases, flame, debris, etc., backwards, thus possibly causing injury.
The company’s new efficiency measures backfired when workers protested and staged a walkout, thus stopping production completely.
36.Balance – The remaining part or leftover amount. This is related to the idea o f a bank balance—a balance is what you have left after deductions.
The publishing division accounted for 25% of the profits, and the film division for the balance.
This means that the film division provided 75% of the profits.
37.Baldly – Plainly, explicitly. (This is the same word as in “losing one’s hair.”) To say something baldly is
to be blunt. People are sometimes shocked or offended when things are said too bluntly or baldly.
An article in Mother Jones explained that Maine is not very diverse: “It is, to put it baldly, one of the whitest states in the union.”
38.Balloon – 1) Swell or puff out; 2) Increase rapidly. Also, in finance, a balloon payment is a single payment at the end o f a loan or mortgage term that is much larger than the other payments.
During the dot-com bubble, the university’s investments ballooned to three times’ their former value.
When he won the award, his chest ballooned with pride.
39.Befall – Happen to (used with something bad). The past tense is befell.
Disaster befell the company once again when the CEO was thrown from a horse.
40.Belie – Contradict or misrepresent.
The actress’s public persona as a perky “girl next door” belied her private penchant for abusing her assistants and demanding that her trailer be filled with ridiculous luxury goods.
The data belie the accepted theory—either we’ve made a mistake, or we have an amazing new discovery on our hands!
41.Benevolent – Expressing goodwill, helping others or charity.
42.Benign – 1) Harmless; 2) Kind or beneficial; 3) Not cancerous.
He was relieved when the biopsy results came back, informing him that the growth was benign.
He’s a benign fellow. I’m sure having him assigned to your team at work will be perfectly pleasant, without changing the way you do things.
43.Blight – Disease that kills plants rapidly, or any cause of decay or destruction (noun); ruin or cause to wither (verb).
Many potato farmers have fallen into poverty as a result o f blight killing their crops.
Gang violence is a blight on our school system, causing innocent students to fear even attending classes. In fact, violence has blighted our town.
44.Blunt – To dull, weaken, or make less effective.
The new therapy has severe side effects, but they can be blunted somewhat with anti-nausea
medication and painkillers.
45.Blur – To make blurry, unclear, indistinct.
In Japan, company titles are taken very seriously and roles are sharply defined, whereas in the U.S.—especially in smaller firms—roles are often blurred as everyone is expected to pitch in on a variety of projects.
46.Bogus – Fake, fraudulent.
The back of this bodybuilding magazine is just full of ads for bogus products—this one promises 22-inch biceps just from wearing magnetic armbands!
47.Bolster – Strengthen or support.
The general requested reinforcements to bolster the defensive line set up at the border.
Many people use alcohol to bolster their confidence before approaching an attractive person in a bar.
48.Broad – Wide, large; in the open (“in broad daylight”); obvious, clear; liberal, tolerant; covering a wide scope o f things. (“Broad” is also a mildly derogatory term for women, in case you’re confused—of course, no one would ever be called a broad on the GMAT.) The panel was given broad discretionary powers. (That pretty much means that the panel can do whatever they want.)
49.Brook – Suffer or tolerate. Often used with the word no. You could say The dictator will not brook dissent, but a more common usage would be The dictator will brook no dissent.
50.Buffer – Something that separates two groups, people, etc., who potentially do not get along. When the U.S. was controlled by England, the state of Georgia was colonized as a buffer between the English colonies and Spanish Florida. A breakwater of rocks would act as a buffer, protecting the beach against crashing waves.